Plant Breeding

Molecular Biology



One of the great difficulties that plant breeders and propagators face is the handling of the large amount of data generated by their action. Decision-making becomes a process, in which if the global influence of the thousands and millions of data generated by the productive and research activity is not considered, it could lead to a great loss of time and financial resources. Our expert staff organizes, analyzes, integrates, transforms and interprets the large amount of information coming from the different biotechnological services of multiplication, plant improvement and molecular biology, this allows us to recognize the patterns and the inference of relations between the dispersed information, the modeling of the biological processes and the generation of hypotheses to support new experimental approaches, offering our clients fast, simple, reliable and totally confidential results.

Phytopathological diagnosis

The use of pathogen-free planting material is a basic requirement for the establishment of productive farms. In most cases, the presence of pathogens does not manifest until the crops are established, leading to significant economic losses, even total loss. In INNEA we offer the phytopathological diagnostic service so that you can apply the most precise sanitary measures in your crops, and internally, we apply and combine the different molecular and immunological methods in all phases of our crops, to detect and identify the different Phytopathogenic microorganisms that may affect our plants, an this way to control their development, and avoid the damages that may subsequently arise in the crop and consequently increase their profitability and productivity.


Complete genotyping service from DNA extraction to simple, fast and reliable emission of the results. We are able to visualize one or multiple DNA fragments amplified simultaneously, we can also obtain band patterns that can be specific for each species or that present a variability between individuals of a certain species, which is very useful to identify resistance and characters of your own varieties.

Varietal identification

The use of molecular markers is a valuable tool for the characterization of living organisms, and in our case for varietal identification. There are both phenotypic markers (leaf type, fruit shape, metabolite synthesis) and genotypic (DNA patterns). While the former are influenced by environmental factors, DNA markers are stable, unless a mutation occurs. With the boom in molecular biology, numerous DNA markers techniques have been developed, but due to their simplicity of execution and robust results, microsatellite markers such as SSR (Single Sequence Repeats) and SNPs have become the main tools for genotyping, differentiation and varietal identification. In INNEA we dominate the use of microsatellites to test the genetic identity of several species, a fact that allows us to offer the services of genotyping and varietal identification, characterize the conserved germplasm and authenticate the plants that we commercialize.

Marker assisted selection

With the help of molecular markers whose we analyse differences in small DNA sequences between different individuals and this way we can select, identify and characterize the best plant material in a targeted and rapid manner, facilitating the process of plant improvement and considerably reducing the time needed to develop varieties.

Project Assistance

INNEA offers customized technical assistance services and on demand.

We offer all interested entities constant support and help throughout the process, so that they obtain high-level, fast and economical results in the development of their genetic improvement projects. In addition, our experience goes beyond advice on improvement projects, but also in the establishment and execution of genetic-statistical designs, data collection and interpretation of results in forest, fruit and agricultural crops.

In Vitro Viability

The plant tissue culture techniques are also powerful tools to assist the genetic improvement to both biotic (tolerance to pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, high and low temperatures) factors. Because they are developed under controlled conditions, this allows to simulate with a greater degree of precision the factor on which we want to practice selection; something much more complicated when done in natural conditions. This represents considerable time savings and better use of human, material and financial resources. INNEA facilities are adapted for the realization of this type of activities. Likewise, our specialized staff is trained in the simulation of different types of stress in vitro and in the selection of potentially useful variants.


Obtaining individuals with a high degree of homozygosis, especially for cross-fertilization and self-incompatible species, is a tedious process, which usually lasts many years and generally ends in failure due to the high degree of consanguinity that is reached after each cycle of homozygosis, We offer you the possibility of generating double haploid lines on demand through in vitro androgenesis in species of agronomic interest. Once obtained, we use techniques such as flow cytometry and molecular markers to analyze the level of ploidy of the obtained individuals, which guarantees the final genetic quality of the material.

Embryo Rescue

Embryo culture, operationally, is one of the simplest tissue culture techniques that exist. However, there are many cases in which this technique becomes a very valuable tool, especially in genetic improvement programs when it is intended to rescue an embryo in species with germination problems, either due to malformations or incompatibility of the organs that form the seed. Embryo culture is also very useful in cases where we need to accelerate the process of reproduction of genotypes of great value. Although it is not a very demanding technique per se, it needs a deep knowledge of the biology of embryo formation.

Somaclonal variation

Somaclonal variation is a common phenomenon in in vitro tissue culture, which involves genetic and epigenetic changes. These changes can be used as a valuable tool for plant breeding, but sometimes they become a serious problem for propagation systems, that demand the maintenance of genetic identity. Despite being a ubiquitous tissue culture phenomenon, the detection of somaclonal variants is not always so easy, which requires, in addition to great experience, to have solid molecular techniques. In INNEA, in addition to specialized personnel, we have extensive experience with the use of DNA markers for the detection of somaclonal variants.

Germplasm Conservation

The conservation of the genetic heritage, obtained both naturally and artificially, is an activity of vital importance. Therefore, germplasm conservation is one of our main activities. Unlike in situ conservation, in vitro conservation reduces maintenance costs of germplasm collections, as well as the risk of losses from natural and anthropogenic factors. In INNEA we offer the possibility of preserving, in the short, medium or long term and in the best conditions, plant material of those species considered of agronomic and forest interest or that cannot be conserved using conventional methods.

Meristem culture

Meristems are poorly differentiated tissues, with high mitotic activity (division), and are found in the active growth zones of both the stem and the root of the plant. Due to their great multiplicative capacity, they are considered microorganism-free zones, which makes them very useful for germplasm sanitation. The combination of this technique with thermotherapy makes virus eradication possible. In addition to sanitation, meristem culture is very useful for the cloning of some recalcitrant species with low multiplication rates. Mastering meristem cultivation requires great expertise and experience, acquired over many years of meticulous work. At INNEA we have acquired the ability to isolate and cultivate meristems for some fruit species.

Development of protocols

In INNEA, we continuously optimize the micropropagation protocols, in order to offer higher quality plants at a lower price. We also develop personalized protocols for the micropropagation of plant materials provided by our clients or for other materials that we are incorporating into our catalog. It is important to mention the achievement, development and optimization of our productive protocols in forest species developed thanks to the extensive experience of our team of specialists in woody species, as well as in agricultural, industrial and ornamental crops. This is a dynamic and constantly evolving process that seeks to improve each of the production phases, which implies a decrease in production costs, and consequently in sales prices.

Somatic embryogenesis

INNEA offers several production and improvement techniques for the propagation of species that are of agronomic importance, including somatic embryogenesis, based on the ability of plant cells to generate organized structures (cellular totipotence). Somatic embryogenesis, as the name implies, generates embryos from somatic cells. These somatic embryos are structurally similar to sexual embryos, but with a genetic load identical to that of the donor plant. While a nodal segment has a few buds capable of generating a new plant, considering the principle of totipotence, each of the millions of cells found in embryogenic structures has the ability to generate an embryo. This allows to obtain multiplication rates that are much higher than those achieved by the cultivation of axillary and / or adventitious buds. If the automation possibilities of this technique are considered, the reduction of production costs is considerable.

Temporary immersion in liquid medium

While axillary buds are grown in semi-solid or gelled culture media, only liquid media is used in temporary immersion systems (TIS). This facilitates reducing production costs by eliminating the gelling agent and by less handling of the plant material. The system starts with the application of programmed immersion cycles, so that the plant material is not in constant contact with the culture medium, thus guaranteeing the production of higher quality plants. Another obvious advantage of TIS is the increase in multiplication rates, as well as facilitating the semi-automation of micropropagation, resulting in a decrease in production costs. At INNEA, we have great experience with the use of various types of TIS for several species.

Production of vitroplants

We specialize in tissue culture techniques or in vitro, we produce clonal plants in a massive, fast way and with an excellent genetic uniformity and certified phytosanitary quality. We are constantly researching and innovating so that our vitroplants grow in the best nutritional media and in the most optimal aseptic conditions, and thus generate in a short term, clones with greater vigor, quality and free of pathogens that have a high agroindustrial interest. We also apply a traceability system through molecular biology that allows us to maintain the genetic identity of the materials we propagate. Our tissue culture laboratory has an approximate productive capacity of 800,000 annual plants, as well as acclimatization areas and greenhouses.

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